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  7. [Important] Keywords and Topics In Newspapers [14-05-20]

[Important] Keywords and Topics In Newspapers [14-05-20]

[Important] Keywords and Topics In Newspapers or “Read between the lines” is an initiative by Parivarthan IAS to encourage aspirants to self study and refocus on the newspapers instead of totally depending on third party sources for their preparation. How to make most of Read between the lines is Explained here , also you can find all the Previous read between the lines posts here in the Archives →

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Important Keywords and Topics In Newspapers [14-05-20]

Constitution, Polity & Governance

  • What is public interest litigation
  • Unlawful activities prevention act
  • panchayats
  • Urban local bodes
  • Foreign contribution regulation act
  • enforcement directorate

Society & Social issues

  • What is difference between Anganwadi and ASHA worker
  • Do we have legal backing to the following ?
  • right to food
  • right to employment
  • public health care
  • public education
  • write two living on old age pension and disability benefits
  • Principle of Vasudiva Kutumbakam
  • non governmental organisations

International relations & Institutions

  • India Nepal kalapani territory
  • what do you understand by the statement like preserving territorial integrity and sovereignty
  • World health organisation

Economy

  • What is equalization levy – Google tax
  • OECD – base erosion and profit shifting
  • New development Bank — BRICS Bank
  • Micro small and medium enterprises
  • Non banking finance companies
  • Stimulus package
  • what are collateral free loans
  • Ujwal discom assurance Yojana
  • 1991 reforms
  • liberalization privatization globalization meaning and definition
  • make in India scheme
  • goods and service tax
  • What is care economy
  • What are special drawing rights of international monetary fund is there an any link to Indian forex reserve
  • 90% of India for force is in informal jobs is
  • Is there any definition for organised or formal sector and unorganised and informal sector?
  • What is glocalisation
  • labour laws in India

Security

  • Central armed police forces
  • What are integrated battle groups

Science and Technology

  • 4G technology

Geography, ,Environment, Biodiversity and Disaster Management

  • National tiger conservation authority
  • forest survey of India
  • environmental impact assessment
  • Tibetan plateau

History, Indian Heritage and Culture

  • Rig Veda
  • The Brahmanas, the Samhitas, the Upanishads, the Aranyakas, ajivikas

Ethics Integrity and Aptitude

  • behavioral design Nudges — behavioral science  — examples ?

Value addition for Mains

 Sanjaya Baru’s article for IE  [GS2 IR and GS3 Economy ]

what kind of dependence that India ought to be now reducing to become more self-reliant? On which economies is ours excessively dependent?
  • First on the list would be the oil-exporting economies. Oil and gas account for a bulk of India’s imports. Whatever new sources of energy India may tap in the foreseeable future, it will remain import-dependent for energy. Fortunately, for India, the global crude oil and gas markets are likely to remain buyers’ markets for some time to come.
  • Second is the dependence on foreign exchange inflows both in the form of remittances, mainly from the Gulf and the US, and financial flows into capital markets. India is seeking more FDI and external debt.
  • The third dependence is on imported defence equipment, mainly from Russia, the US, Israel and France.
  • Fourth, import dependence in electronic goods and pharmaceuticals, mainly from China.
  • Lessons from China: Post-Deng Xiaoping China established long ago that for a large economy, it is possible to be both self-reliant and globalised at the same time. Trade in itself does not create dependence if a country is able to grow both exports and imports. China has demonstrated the geo-economic power of both exports and imports by making trade partners dependent on it on both counts. When China refuses to buy wine and beef from Australia, it is using its import power, not demonstrating its import dependence. If an economy is willing to live without those imports or can substitute them with domestic production, then it is not badly hurt.
  • It is export dependence that can make even a large economy vulnerable and it China’s dependence on US markets that President Donald Trump has aimed to reduce by waging a trade war. India has never had such export dependence on any one country. The Modi government’s hope that multinational companies exiting China will relocate to India can only make India more export dependent since these MNCs aim to sell globally.
  • Making India less dependent on China cannot be the only measure of self-reliance.
  • For India to be truly self-reliant and self-confident, public investment in education, human capability and research and development has to increase.
  • It is not trade dependence that makes India vulnerable but the inadequacy of its human capital.
 

Rajya Sabha  [GS Paper 2 and Public Administration Paper 2]

  • An analysis undertaken by the Rajya Sabha Secretariat recently revealed that during the past 68 years since the first general elections in 1952, the government of the day had a majority in the Rajya Sabha only for 29 years and was in a minority for 39 years, including an unbroken stretch for the past 31 years.
  • Parliament held only three Joint Sittings to resolve differences between both the Houses.
    1. The first instance was in 1961 when the then Nehru government enjoyed a majority in the Rajya Sabha but the Dowry Prohibition Bill, 1959 suffered a defeat.
    2. In 1978, the Banking Services Commission (Repeal) Bill, 1977 was rejected by the Rajya Sabha and in 2002,
    3. The Prevention of Terrorism Bill, 2002 could not pass the Rajya Sabha scrutiny.
  • An analysis by the Secretariat revealed that the productivity of the Rajya Sabha till 1997 has been 100% and above and the past 23 years have thrown up a disturbing trend of rising disruptions.
  • Productivity fell to 87% during 1998-2004, 76% during 2005-14 and 61% during 2015-19.
  • While the time spent by the Rajya Sabha on legislation since 1978 remained the same at about 29%, a concern emerges in respect of the ‘Oversight’ function of the House. Legislatures ensure accountability of the executive through Questions, Calling Attention Notices etc. Time share of this important Oversight function of the Council of States in the total functional time of the House during 1978-2004 was 39.50%. This fell to 21.99% during 2005-14 and to 12.34% since 2015.
  • This decline is primarily on account of disruptions forcing cancellation of Question Hour frequently. Disruptions also dent the quality of law-making as seen in passing of Bills without discussion sometimes.
  • What needs to be addressed by all the stakeholders is that while enabling Rajya Sabha to retain its independence, it should not be seen as ‘disruptive’ as evidenced over the past two decades.
  • Political passions should not be the basis of such disruptions, if the perception is that they are.
  • The line between obstruction and disruption is very thin and we should guard against it. Both the sides of the House have a stake in proper functioning of Rajya Sabha.

How India binges on its booze economy

Alcohol -Revenues and Loss of Human Capital ?
  • According to the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2015-16, in India, 29.2% of men in the age bracket of 15-49 years drank alcohol.
  • Among men, the north-eastern states have the highest propensity to alcohol. At the other end of the spectrum was Jammu & Kashmir and Gujarat
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), average alcohol consumption in India was 5.7 litres per person above the age of 15 per year in 2016, up from 4.3 litres in 2010.
  • On per capita consumption, India is ranked 101 (with Moldova leading with 15.2 litres.)
  • Some states have gone the full hog in imposing prohibition: Gujarat (since 1960), Nagaland (since 1989), Bihar (since 2016), Mizoram (since 2019), and in most parts of Lakshadweep.
  • Of about 467,000 road accidents in India in 2018, drunken driving was responsible for 12,018 accidents and 4,188 deaths.
  • According to the WHO, globally, the chances of death in a road accident increase 17 times when a driver is alcohol-induced, compared to an unimpaired driver.
  • It’s dangerous even when one is not driving. In the UK, 48% pedestrians killed in road accidents had consumed alcohol.
  • A more recent study, Health Impact and Economic Burden of Alcohol Consumption in India, concluded that alcohol-attributable deaths would lead to a loss of 258 million life-years between 2011 and 2050.
  • The study placed the economic burden on the health system at $48.11 billion, and societal burden (including health costs, productivity loss, and so on) at $1,867 billion.
  • “This amounts to an average loss of 1.45% of the gross domestic product (GDP) per year to the Indian economy,” the study said.
  • For now, revenues are all that states can see in liquor.

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